Thursday, November 9, 2017

Introduction to Garments Quality Control

Today, the garment manufacturers are facing harsh competition due to the global economic crisis, stricter regulations in international trade and the stiff rise of the prices of raw materials and chemicals. Apparel manufacturers have to produce a diverse product mix as consumers are difficult to understand and predict. Consumer’s choice is shifting from traditional designs towards luxury high-fashion items. Almost all consumers demand both moderate pricing and frequent style changes. Product quality is the supreme demand among the consumers. So apparel manufactures have to concentrate on garments quality. In this article I will explain about garments quality and way to control.
Garments quality control
Fig: Garments quality control
What is quality?
There are two main aspects top consider when discussing the quality of a garment.

These are:
  1. Design quality
  2. Manufacturing quality
Design quality:
Design quality is concerned with materials, fit and construction methods.

Manufacturing quality:
Manufacturing quality is concerned with degree to which the garment produced agrees with the sample or specifications. Our training will be provided mainly for manufacturing quality.

Who decides the quality level?
In the majority of cases the customer decided the acceptable levels of quality both from design and manufacturing aspects. The customer may be a profession buyer for a large wholesale or retail organization. The consumer of the number of the public who buys a garment from a retail shop also influences quality requirements. In many cases this is a negative influence. i.e he does not buy all though

In the bigger organization where marking programmers are carried out the consumer can affect design quality.

Objective of quality control:
The main objective of quality control is to ensure that goods are produced to the first customer (Direct order) and hopefully to the second customers (Reorder / Alter order / New order) as well. If both customers can be satisfied then the manufacture’s products are more likely to continue to be in demand.

Satisfactory quality can only be ensured through (from the manufacturer’s point of view):
  • Knowing the customer needs.
  • Designing to meet them.
  • Faultless construction manufacture
  • Certified performance and safety.
  • Clear instruction manuals
  • Suitable packaging.
  • Prompt delivery.
  • Feed back of field experience
Satisfaction quality can be ensured from the customer’s point of view by providing:
  • Right product
  • Right quality
  • Right time and
  • Undamaged condition
How can quality be achieved:
  1. Goods must be designed to meet customer’s needs and make manufacturing process and maintenance easy.
  2. They must be made exactly and consistently to the specified design.
  3. Marketing must ensure accurate advertising, trade description with constant feed back for improved design.
  4. Total commitment to organized design.
Principles of quality management:
The objectives to prevent errors by early detection and action.
  1. The need to make the requirement complete and clear at all levels, from this specification of a large system to the individual work construction and terms of reference.
  2. The detection error by monitoring both product and the method by which is produced.
  3. The prevention of errors at the earliest (right first time)
  4. The total involvement all concerned of the contribution to the final products quality.
  5. Establish a total forward and backward control system, allowing flexibility for change.
Purpose of quality control:
It is along standing tradition of any organization to offer the customers first quality merchandise. The purpose off this quality control program is to assist manufacturers in meeting our standards.

In addition, company’s quality control program can be also help the supplies with their operation. Quality control program not only help spot and reject defective items, but more importantly they pinpoint production operations that need special attention, thereby reducing the number of defects in future production. This type quality control provides basis for management decisions in the manufacture’s plant.

For the purpose of this manual, the defect refers to a condition that renders merchandise of second quality and or unacceptable because the defect is one or more of the following:
  • It is conspicuous
  • It was affect the salability of the product
  • It was affect the serviceability of the product
  • It is significantly different from the specification
It is understood that all performance and legal requirements be following to the letter (that is L/C or any other contract between the buyer &seller) with no deviation allowed, including (but not limited to) requirement for the following:
  • Flammability
  • Refurbishing (cleaning)
  • Labeling
A manufacturer realizes three major benefits from a formal quality control program.
  • Getting the most for the quality control dollar.
  • Using the entire quality control staff most effectively.
  • Ensuring that even with turnover of personnel quality is maintained.
Essential elements of a quality control program:

1. Measurement leadership:
Experience has proven that the key to effective quality control is measurement’s leadership in the program. If top measurement wants good quality and displays leadership in quality concerns, measurement and production supervisors will follow through. Without leadership from the top there is often little or no improvement in quality no matter what system is used.

Now today’s competitive market, suppliers are serious about improving quality control. The measurement of such suppliers has learned to identify and correct common problem areas such as the following:
  1. No piece goods inspection, not even measuring yardage to see that company gets what it paid for in total yards.
  2. No cutting inspection other than by a cutting supervisor.
  3. A ratio of only one sewing supervisor every 100-200 operators.
  4. A lack of Quality inspectors or a ratio only one inspector to 100-200 operators or inspectors who are primarily bundle movers.
  5. Final 100 percent inspectors who are on piece rate pay and are performing operational function such as trim, turn, button or zipper close, fold and package.
  6. Little or no training program for any type of inspector.
  7. Inspector’s salary rates lower than the rate for any other job in the plant, pay at the minimum allowed.
  8. No checking for size other than measuring a few pilot lot garments.
  9. No lab testing or lab equipment, not even a washing machine.
  10. No inspection or checking of constructed merchandise beyond possibly sending to check delivery status.
  11. Acceptance and shipment of import merchandise without checking it of quality or size.
These conditions suggest areas to think about as you get the training. After the training you will be able to evaluate your system in terms of our recommendations for an effective quality control program.

2. Final statistical auditing:
The most crucial part of any quality control process is the final inspection. Statistical Auditing method suggests the following quality control production:
  • Evaluate your piece goods suppliers, identity bad shipments and take corrective action.
  • Evaluate your operations in all areas of production (cutting, sewing, finishing) and take corrective action as necessary.
  • Evaluate the terms and conditions specified in the letter/ letter of credit/ contract, identity bad production and take corrective action.
Guideline for quality management:
Measurement plays a critical role in quality control. The following guidelines for measurement reflect recommendations for planning and initiating an effective quality program.

Chain of measurement responsibility:
Measurement is responsible for determining who will have the final decision regarding quality control problems. The chain of responsibility may vary depending on the size and staff of the manufacturer.


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