Monday, July 10, 2017

Application Method of Dyestuff According to Fiber

There are several methods for classification of dyes. Generally dyes or dyestuff are classified according to their origin, application, and chemical structure and properties. Dye manufacturers classify dyes based on their chemical properties, while dyers classify dyes based on the method of application. In this article I have classified dyes according to fiber characteristics.
Classification of dyes
Fig: Classification of dyes
Classification of dyes according to application:
Dyestuff
Fiber type
Method
Fastness
Direct dye
Cotton, linen, viscose, jute and silk.
Simple diffusion of dye into fiber from aqueous solution.
Relative poor fastness to wash, light and perspiration.
Reactive dye
Cotton, linen, viscose, jute, silk, wool
Dyestuff makes chemical link with fiber.
Very good fastness to wash, light and perspiration.
Vat dye
Cotton, linen, viscose
Insoluble dyestuff is made soluble by reducing agent that can diffuse into fiber and then insoluble by re-oxidation.
Very good fastness to wash, light and perspiration.
Azoic dye
Cotton, linen, viscose
After diffusion into fiber, two different chemicals are made to react together to form the insoluble color.
Sulphur dye
Cotton, linen, viscose
Insoluble dyestuff, similar to vat.
Fast to washing but not light.
Disperse dye
Polyester, nylon, acetate.
Water insoluble; applied from dispersion; diffuse into fiber at high temperature.
Good fastness properties.
Wool, silk, nylon
Applied from an acidic dye bath.
Depend on dye and fiber bath.
Basic dye
Acrylic, jute
Reaction with acidic group.
Good fastness properties on acrylic.
Metal complex
Wool, silk, nylon
Inside fiber, it makes large molecules with combination of chromium or cobalt with chromophores.
Good fastness properties due to large size.
Chrome
Wool, silk, nylon
Inside fiber, it makes large molecules with combination of chromium or cobalt with chromophores.
Good fastness properties except rubbing.
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