Plant Layout of Garment Industry

Garment Plant Layout:
Plant layout is the most effective physical arrangement of industrial facilities. This arrangement includes the space needed for arrangement of machines, processing equipment, material movement, storage, labors and all supporting activities. It helps to promote the efficient use of equipment, material, people and energy. A good plant layout for garment industry is directly associated with good work flow, right from fabric receiving till the finished products go out of the garment factory.

plant layout
Fig: Plant layout
Reasons for plant layout problems:
Plant layout problems may arise due to:
  • A design change
  • An enlarged department
  • A reduced department
  • A new product
  • A relocated department
  • A new department
  • A new plant
Objectives of plant layout:
The overall objectives of plant layout are:
  1. To minimize the material handling and transportation.
  2. To maximize the utilization of floor space.
  3. To move materials at desired speed with the low cost.
  4. To increase productivity and product quality with reduced capital cost.
  5. To reduce internal transport from one operation to the next.
  6. To minimize the movements made by workers.
  7. To design the work stations suitably and properly.
  8. To ensure better utilization of machine manpower and service.
  9. To improve maintenance and inspection of facilities etc.
  10. Less work in process.
  11. Less supervision and indirect labor.
  12. Less floor space.
  13. Improved safety conditions with fewer accidents.
  14. Space for future expansion.
  15. Lighting and ventilating of areas.
  16. Proper production control.
Principles of Plant Layout in Garment Industry:
The basic principles of good plant layout of apparel industry are as follows:

1. Principle of overall integration:
The best plant layout is that which integrates the man, materials, machineries, supporting activities and any other relevant factors in a way which results in the best compromise.

2. Principle of minimum distance:
Other things equal, the best layout is that in which the materials and men are required to move the minimum distance.

3. Principle of flow:
Other things being equal, the best layout is that which arranges the work area for each operation or process in the same order or sequence that forms, treats or assembles the material in a systematic flow.

4. Principles of cubic space:
The best layout is that in which all available space, both vertical and horizontal, is most economically an effectively utilized.

5. Principle of satisfaction and safety:
Other things being equal, the best plant layout is that which makes work satisfying and safe for workers.

6. Principle of flexibility:
Other things being equal, the best layout is that which can be adjusted and rearranged at a minimum cost and inconvenience i.e. layout should be flexible enough to work on.

Example of Garment Factory Layout:
Plant layout of garment industry are two types:
  1. Horizontal layout plan
  2. Vertical layout plan
1. Horizontal layout plan:
Horizontal garment layout plan
Fig: Horizontal garment layout plan
2. Vertical layout plan: 

Vertical garment layout plan
Fig: Vertical garment layout plan
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  2. Machine Layout Plan for Long Sleeve Shirt
  3. T-shirt Manufacturing Process with Machine Layout Plan
  4. Importance of Plant Location Selection in Apparel Industry