Jute Yarn Manufacturing Process

Jute fiber:
Jute is a long staple fiber. It is widely used natural fiber after cotton. This fiber is hard and stiff used for all types of packaging materials and also some home textile manufacturing. This fiber is varied by its length, fineness, color and strength. Jute fiber contain small amount of impurities. A good quality uniform yarn is needed to manufacture from this variable quality fiber. The spinnable property of jute fiber are given bellow:
  • Length: 0.2 inch to 3 ft
  • Fineness: 1.9-2.2 tex
  • Color: White to gray
Types of jute fiber:
Types of jute fiber used to make goods are purchased in several grades as well as blends of jute and other fibers. White jute, Tossa and Mesta are the main types of jute fiber.

Manufacturing process of jute spun yarn:
It is needed to manufacture different types of hessian, sacking and C.B.C (Carpet backing cloth) yarn from this jute. The process sequences are almost same for all types of yarn manufacturing. Jute spun yarn manufacturing process is given below:

Jute spun yarn production process
Fig: Jute spun yarn production process
Flow chart of jute yarn manufacturing:

Input material or feed product →→ Manufacturing process →→ Output or delivery product



Jute bales →→ Selection of jute for a batch →→ Selected jute fiber



Selected jute fiber →→ Piecing up →→ Cut jute root and Morah form of fiber



Morah form of fiber →→ Softening and lubricating →→ Lubricated jute fiber



Lubricated jute fiber →→ Conditioning or pilling →→ Pilled jute fiber



Pilled jute fiber →→ Carding (Breaker card) →→ Breaker sliver



Breaker sliver →→ Carding (Finisher card) →→ Finisher sliver



Finisher sliver →→ 1st Draw frame →→ 1st Draw sliver



1st Draw sliver →→ 2nd Draw frame →→ 2nd Draw sliver



2nd Draw sliver →→ 3rd Draw frame →→ 3rd Draw sliver



3rd Draw sliver →→ Spinning (Flyer) →→ Jute yarn


Principle operations of jute spinning are described briefly at below:

Selection of jute for a batch:
A definite number of same or different types of jute bales are selected for manufacturing a particular type of yarn is called selection of jute for a batch. For example, to produce 8 lbs/spindle hessian warp yarn a batch can be consist of following jute fiber:

White C – 50% - 50 bales
White X – 30% - 30 bales
Tossa – 20% - 20 bales
-----------------------------------------------
Total – 100% - 100 bales

Piecing up: 

Opening of jute bale and separation of stiff root from jute and making of morah according to specific weight (1-2 lb) is called piecing up.

Softening and Lubricating:
Jute is stiff and hard fiber is needed to soften by the application of emulsion in softening or spreader machine. Normally morah jute spreads uniformly in the softening or spreading machine and emulsion is applied at open jute fiber. (Emulsion is the mixture of oil, water and emulsifier.)

Emulsion:
An emulsion is an intimate mixture of some lubricating agents, which has ability to soften the jute fiber if applied on the surface of fiber. Normal recipe of emulsion is: Water-80%, Jute batching oil-19% and Emulsifier-1%.

Conditioning or pilling:
It is the storing of emulsified jute fiber at specific condition. (Time 36-72 hour in a little bit warm place)

Carding (Breaker card):
The process by which long jute is passed through the high speed pinned rollers and broken down its entangled mass and delivered in the form of ribbon of uniform weight per unit length is called carding. The main object of carding is separating the fiber from one another by breaking its entanglement.

Finisher card:
In this process semi-open jute fiber is further open by the rollers and cylinder of this machine, which are pinned in the same manner as in breaker card but pins are finer and set closer together in this card machine for better separation and opening. Fibres are opened and at the same time doubling is occurred here, which makes better uniformity of sliver.

Drawing:
At drawing machine both drawing and doubling are done. Drawing is the process of attenuation the fiber to make lighter the sliver but doubling makes the improvement of sliver evenness. There are three drawing machine in jute processing line. 1st draw sliver feeds at 2nd draw machine and 2nd draw sliver feeds at 3rd draw machine. The fineness of 3rd draw sliver is suitable to feed jute spinning machine. Sliver weights are given bellow:

1st draw sliver weight = (6-10) lbs/100 yards
2nd draw sliver weight = (4-6) lbs/100 yards
3rd sliver weight = (1-1.5) lbs/100 yards

Spinning: 

In jute spinning frame flyer is used to insert twist to produced yarn after required draft.

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