Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Production Management System in Apparel Industry

Production is defined as the step-by-step conversion of one form of material into another through chemical or mechanical process to create or enhance the utility of the product to the user.

Production management is a process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of the production function.

Objectives of production management:
The objectives of the production management is stated as:

To produce goods or services of right quality and quantity at the predetermined time and pre-established cost.

Production management in apparel industry
Fig: Production management in apparel industry
Thus the objective of production management is related in:
  1. Right quality,
  2. Right quantity,
  3. Predetermined time and
  4. Pre-established cost (manufacturing cost)
Functions of production department in garment industry:
The activities of production department in apparel industry can be grouped into two broad categories:
  1. The activities which convert the available capital into physical resources required for production.
  2. The activities that convert the physical resources into sellable goods and services.
In carrying out the above activities, the production department must fulfill the following activities:
  • Production of goods at the right time and in sufficient quantity to meet the demand.
  • Production of goods at minimum possible cost.
  • Production of goods of acceptable quality.
Thus, the functions of production personnel are:
  • Forecasting the demand for the products and using the forecast to determine the requirements of various factors of productions.
  • Arranging for the procurement of required factors of production.
  • Arranging for the services such as maintenance, store keeping, material handling, inspection and quality control etc. which are required to attain the targeted level of production.
  • Effective utilization of the factors of production and service facilities available to produce the product.
Production management framework in apparel industry:
The division of production management functions into 5P’s (product, plant, program, process and people) will provide useful conceptual framework for the various activities performed by production or operations manager.

Following are the Five P’s:

1. Product:
Product is the link between production and marketing. It is not enough that a customer requires product but garment factory must be capable of producing the product. As per the product policy of the organization an agreement is reached between the various functions on the following aspects of the product:
  • Performance
  • Quality and reliability
  • Aesthetics and ergonomics
  • Quantity and selling price
  • Delivery schedule
To arrive at the above, the external and the internal factors which affects the various aspects such as market needs, existing culture and legal constrains and the environmental demands should be given due consideration. Thus the major policy decision regarding variety of product mix is going to affect the production system.

2. Plant:
The plant accounts for major investment. The plant should match the needs of the product, market, the worker and the organization. The plant is concerned with:
  • Design and layout of buildings and offices
  • Reliability, performance, maintenance of equipment
  • Safety of operation
  • The financial constrains
3. Processes:
There are always a number of alternative methods of creating a product. But it is required to select the one best method which attains the objectives.

In deciding about the process, it is necessary to examine the following factors:
  • Available capacity
  • Manpower skills available
  • Type of production
  • Plant layout
  • Safety
  • Maintenance required
  • Manufacturing costs
4. Program:
The program here refers to the time table and sequence of production. Thus the program prepares schedules for:
  • Purchasing
  • Transforming
  • Maintenance
  • Cash
  • Storage & Transport
5. People:
Production depends upon the people. The people vary in their attitudes, skill and expectations from the work. Thus to make best use of available human resource, it is required to have a good match between people and job which may lead to job satisfaction. The production manager should be involved in issues like:
  • Wages/salary administration
  • Conditions of work/safety
  • Motivation
  • Training of employees
Thus production management encompasses these 5 P’s overlapping each other to attain the goal.

You can also like:
  1. Functions of Production Planning and Control in Garment Manufacturing
  2. Production Organization Systems in Garment Industry
  3. Importance of Production Planning and Control in Garment Industry
  4. Product Development in the Apparel Industry