Mechanical and Chemical Finishing Effects in Textile

Finishing:
The term finishing covers a wide range of processes. Finishing process is done for improving its appearance, feel or other properties. This process also increases its serviceability. It is usually the last stage of fabric processing. Finishing is also called beautification process of fabric. There are generally three basic objectives in finishing.
  1. Modification of the fabric surface.
  2. Modification of the weaving properties.
  3. Modification of the aftercare characteristics.
There are mainly two types of finishing. One is mechanical or dry finishing and another is chemical or wet finishing.
Finishing process on fabric
Fig: Finishing process on fabric
Mechanical finishing effects on fabric:
  1. Framing: Correct and uniform width and smoothness (Stenter frame)
  2. Raising: Fluffy surface, soft handle and warm fabric.
  3. Shearing: Removal of short hairs from smooth fabrics.
  4. Rateening: Ratine (curled) and similar effects produced on raised fabrics by special brushing or rubbing devices.
  5. Calendaring: Smoothing and compacting with hard, heavy rollers.
  6. Embossing: Relief effects by means of an engraved roller.
  7. Sanding / Emerising: Light raising of the surface by emery rollers.
  8. Pleating: Introduction of permanent creases.
  9. Shrinking: Allowing or forcing the fabrics to shrink in the length direction.
  10. Pressing: Smoothing by means of pressing platens; mainly for wool.
  11. Decatizing: Steam pressing treatment for wool fabrics to improve uniformity of appearance, dimensional stability and handle.
Chemical finishing effects on fabric:
  1. Water repellent: Temporary or durable water repellent fabric by silicones.
  2. Stain resistant: Stain resistant fabric is made by silicones.
  3. Antistatic: To prevent the build up static charge at low humidity.
  4. Flame resistant: To make fabric non-flammable or difficult to ignite.
  5. Hygienic: Prevent to grow micro-organism on the textile and on the human skin.
  6. Rot proofing: Protection of the textile from organisms that promote decomposition.
  7. Anti-pilling: Reduction of the tendency for pilling.
  8. Easy care: Reduce the sensitivity of the fiver to moisture and to creasing. 
  9. Felting: Encourage the natural felting properties by repeated compressions.
  10. Anti-felting: Reduce the natural felting properties.
  11. Moth proofing: Make the fiber inedible by the moths.
  12. Parchment zing: To prevent the degradation of the fiber.
Inspection of finishing fabric:
The finishes fabric is further inspected to find any types of fault formed.

Folding/Rolling:
The finished fabric is folded according to requirement which is easy to carry.

Packing:
The folded fabrics are packed either according to length requirement or weight requirement.