Friday, April 21, 2017

Types of Layout Design in Apparel Industry

The way in which machinery, equipment and material are arranged in a working area determines the layout in that area. In the apparel manufacturing industry layout is often determined at the outset of operations, i.e. when a plant or even offices starts operating. Even if the infidel layout was well throughout, a re-examination of the utilization of space is often called for because of various factors, among them the following:
  • New products are added or product design changes introduced. Both types of action may necessitate a different sequence of operations.
  • New equipment or machinery or a different shape and size of materials are introduced.
  • Materials-handling equipment that has different shape requirements from the original equipment is acquired.
  • Modifications are made to the building to increase shape.
  • Temporary arrangements may have been made to cape with an upsurge of demand for a certain product, but these then remain semi-permanent.
  • Moves are made by management toward advanced technologies such as the use of robotics, automation, computer networking or flexible manufacturing systems.
When situations like these arise, it is said that the plant or a working area has outgrown is present layout. Operations become cumbersome with either congestion or lengthy and unnecessary movements of products in-progress or operators often with crises-crossing lines of production resulting in loss of time and energy.
Layout design in apparel industry
Fig: Layout design in apparel industry
Types of layout system in garment industry:
A layout has to start by distinguishing among four basic types-
  1. Layout by fixed position
  2. Layout by process or function
  3. Layout by product or line layout
  4. Layout making possible group
1. Layout by fixed position:
This arrangement is used when the material to be processed does not travel around the plant but stays in one place; all the necessary equipment and machinery are brought to it instead. This is the case when the product is bulky and heavy and when only a few units are made at a time. Typical examples are shipbuilding or aircraft construction, and the manufacture of diesel engines or large motors.

2. Layout by process or function:
Here all operations of the same nature are grouped together, for example: in the garment industry all the cutting of material is carried out in one area, all the finishing in a third, and so on. This layout is usually chosen where a great many products which share the same machinery are being made and where any one product has only a relatively low volume of output. Other examples are textile spinning and weaving, and maintenance workshops.

3. Layout by product or line layout:
Sometimes popularly referred to as “mass production”. In this layout all the necessary machinery and equipment needed to make a given product are set out in the same area and in the sequence of them manufacturing process. This layout is used mainly where there is a high demand for one or several products that are more or less standardized. Typical examples are soft drinks bottling, car assembly and some canning operations.

4. Layout making possible group:
Group layout in practice a combination of two types or more of layout may exist in working area. Recently, in an effort to increase job satisfaction, several enterprises have arranged their operations in a new way, with a group of workers working together on a give product or on a part of a product and having at had all the machinery and equipment needed to complete their work. In such cases the workers distribute the work among them and usually interchange jobs.

This is particular true when a shift is made from a layout by function to a line layout for one or more products whose output has been significantly. In most cases, however, a careful analysis of the flow is called for before any decision is taken to change a give layout, since this is usually a costly process, and management has to be convinced that real savings will result before authorizing the change. If each and every garment factory follows that procedure or system before planning the production then our RMG sector can be more developed.