Sunday, April 16, 2017

Finishing Department Management in Garment Industry

Finishing department:
In the apparel manufacturing industry, finishing department play the vital role for producing complete garments. After completing the sewing performance, garments are passing to the finishing section / department to get the finishing touch, defects free and high quality garment due to inspection.

Finishing and packaging is an important contributing to the position of a product in the market. Presentation of the product by packaging is becoming a distinctive marketing instrument. Finishing and packaging could be considered as the silent salesman of the product.
Finishing department in apparel industry
Fig: Finishing department in apparel industry
Total finishing room management process in apparel industry:
When the garments are exported to the international market, different types of finishing instructions should have to be followed by the manufacturer.

Now I have mentioned the A to Z finishing room management system:

1. Washing:
After passing the complete garment by the sewing room, if there has any spots like, oil mark, stain marks then it remove by washing.

2. Pressing:
The main purposes of pressing are:
  • To remove unwanted creases and crush marks.
  • To create creases where the design of the garment requires them.
  • To set the shape of garment.
  • To give an eye catching appearance to garment.
  • The reaction of fabric to heat moisture and pressure, will vary according to various qualities, properties and characteristics of fibers and construction of fabric.
Before pressing any fabric, we should press samples of fabric in order to ensure following question:

a. Does the fabric shrink?
   -Avoid any moisture.

b. Does the fabric shine?
   -Reduce the pressure and heat.

c. Does the fabric melt?
   -Reduce the heat.

d. Does the fabric get any watermark?
   -Do not steam.

e. Does the folder edge show an impression?
   -Reduce the pressure.

Pressing and folding instruction:
Get proper knowledge about, how a product is to be pressed and folded.

Different types of pressing instruction:
  • Hot pressing
  • Medium pressing
  • Light pressing
  • Do not press and steam etc.
Types of folding methods:
There are two types of folding methods. They are
  • Flat pack folding
  • Hanger pack folding
3. Packaging:
There are two types of packaging are used in apparel industry. They are

Merchandising packing:
A merchandising packing must be designed to meet the needs of the retailer and the desires of the customer.

Shipment packing:
The shipment packing performs the distribution function. It should be in a position to protect and preserve the quality of the product.

***Specification of poly-bag:
  • Poly-bag size: length and width. 12-200 Gauge or 30-50 micron
  • Thickness: 100 micron = 1 mm
  • Type: Flop, self seal, tubs etc.
  • Print: Warning for suffocation
***Carton and packaging instruction:
How product is to be packed within a carton will vary by pack type and product. The packing specification will be sent to the manufacturer. Normally it represents a single styles/color/size. There are three types garment packing are mostly use in apparel industry. They are

a. Bulk pack:
Single SKU to a carton garments can be bagged or unbagged individually depending on the product. For the overseas shipments the unbagged garments are placed in a large poly bag before being placed in a carton. Do not bundle individual garment together.

b. Pre pack:
A specific configuration of SKUS packed together. There are three pre pack types:
  • Single
  • Multiple
  • Assorted
Single: A pre pack consisting of garments of solid color and solid size.

Example: A single pre pack of t-shirt could be 6 size small red color packed together as a bundle.

Color……….. Small………..Total

Red………….. 06 …………… 06

Multiple: A pre pack consists of garments of solid color but multiple sizes.

Example: A multiple per pack of t-shirts could be 2 size small, 2 size medium and 2 size large color t- shirt packed together as a bundle.

Assorted: A prepack consists of garments of multiple color and or multiple sizes.

Example: An assorted pre pack to t-shirt could be 1 size smaller yellow t-shirt, 1 size medium yellow t-shirt, 1 size large yellow t-shirt, 1 size small & medium red color t-shirt and 1 size large red t-shirt packed together as a bundle.

Color …………. S ………. M ……….. L …………. Total garments

Yellow ………… 1 ……… 1 …………. 1 ………… 03

Red …………….. 1……….1 ………….. 1 ………… 03

c. Garments on hangers:
There are two ways of packing or shipping a garment on a hanger.

GOH/Flat pack:
Garments on a hanger laid flat in carton.

GOH/Loose:
Garments on a hanger and hung on ropes inside a crate & placed in a shipping container.

4. Carton specifications:
Carton specifications are three types. These are
  • Carton dimensions
  • Carton material
  • Carton marking & labeling
Carton dimensions:
  • Length /width/height = 24 x 24 x 8
  • Maximum allowable deviation from the stated carton measurement.
Carton material:
  • Liner board must be wet strength.
  • Telescopic carton must have a minimum of 175 pound per square inch bursting strength for the top, 120 pound per square inch for the bottom.
  • Flutes per linear foot of corrugation must be 50 ± 3 with a height of 3/32 inches (0.238 cm)
  • Metal staple should not be used in the formation of the box.
Carton marking & labeling:
Complete carton content, information to be located on slides in the carton.

Main mark:
  • Address information
  • Carton number
  • Style/size/quantity
  • Country of origin etc.
  • Carton measurement
Side mark:
  • Color names
  • Gross weight
  • Net weight
  • Carton dimensions etc.
Carton security:
  • Strapping
  • Taping
5. Customer research about product:
Customer research about garment product

6. Inspection:
Inspection is the function to judge the quality product. Inspection is the process of measuring the quality of a product or service in terms of established standards.

Pressing and packaging inspection:
  • Some objectives of pressing and packaging inspections are in below:
  • To ensure that garments measure the buyer’s specifications within the allowed tolerance after pressing.
  • To ensure finished garments have to no loose threads or blemishes and are press to give an acceptable appearance according to the customer specifications.
  • To ensure the garments are folded and packaged to the customer’s specifications.
  • To ensure the correct packaging items have been used.
  • To ensure the garment is an acceptable appearance after packaging.
  • To ensure all inner boxes contain the correct quality per size & color and that the boxes containthe correct number of cartons and display the correct marking.
Inspection procedure:
  • Select at random from the packaging section a quantity of shirt as per the sample plan.
  • Remove the shirt from the polybag and masure to ensure it is the correct folded size & tie-space is the correct width.
  • From the P.O or the packaging specification chart, unfold the garment and check that all the packaging items have been used as specified.
  • Record on the inspection from any items that are found missing.
  • Visually inspect the garment for its overall appearance, giving particular attention to the critical areas, i.e. collar, pocket and also the matching of stripes & plaid.
  • If any defect is found a green Q.C sticker must be put on the garment and the details recorded on the inspection form. the defective garment should then be passed to the pressing supervisor for corrective action.
  • After have unfolded the garment, measure it to ensure the size tolerance allowed after pressing. It is refer to buyers specification for the measurement point.
  • If a garment is rendered as reject, then a red Q.C sticker must be put on the garment and the garment again passed to the pressing supervisor.
  • All details must be recorded on the inspection form.
Final checking for pressing/ folding:
  • Checking if their is any burn or scorch mark.
  • Any shine surface.
  • Improperly pressed garment affecting overall appearance.
  • Incorrect folding methods and size.
  • Hanging and loose threads.
  • No proper drying prior to packaging.
  • Incorrect packaging items.
Final checking for packaging/labeling:
  • Check labels against purchase order information.
  • Style/color.
  • Size.
  • Purchase order number.
  • Quantity.
  • UPC sticker.
  • International case marking (diamond marks)
  • Country of origin.
  • Final destination (Address only)
  • Carton number.
Some common problems of packaging:
  • Incorrect barcode tickets (hangtags) attach to garments.
  • Incorrect counting of garments.
  • Incorrect loading of garment on to containers.
You can also like:
  1. Technical Analysis of Garments Packing Systems
  2. Garments Finishing Manager’s Job Duties and Responsibilities
  3. List of Finishing Machines, Tools and Equipments in Apparel Industry
  4. Garment Pressing or Ironing | Objects of Garment Pressing in Apparel Industry
  5. Fabric Inspection Process in Apparel Industry
  6. Final Inspection Process in Apparel Industry
  7. Inline Quality Inspection Process in Apparel Industry