Thursday, March 16, 2017

Production Organization Systems in Garment Industry

In any production organization has main goal to manufacture quality product with short time and less cost. Apparel industry is undergoing enormous change. As a result increasing pressure on retailers and manufacturers. They have to complete production not just in terms of price, but also in delivery times and services offered. So they have to follow a specific production system. Like other industries, apparel manufacturing industry have own production organization system. 

Production organization system in apparel industry:
In industrial garment manufacturing, there are three main system of organization. These are mention in below:
  1. Synchronized system
  2. Section system 
  3. Progressive bundle system 
1. Synchronized system or Straight-line system:
The Synchronized or straight line system is suitable for large volume production (mass production or large batches). As the name suggests, the work flow in a straight line through a series of work stations, each of which is synchronized to the next by ensuring that the time spent at each station is exactly the same. This required that each individual step in the assembly of the product has to be analyzed carefully and the steps distributed in a balanced way over the available work stations. Each operator then performs exactly the same operation over and over again on the identical parts of successive garments. Detailed work plans have to be drawn up to facilitate this balancing of the line.
Straight line system with hanger transport
Fig: Straight line system with hanger transport
  • Synchronized line system includes short distance between stations.
  • Low volume of work in process.
  • Precise planning of production times.
  • Highly visible production progress and predicting production quantity.
  • It includes the need for intensive detailed pre-planning.
  • High cost of style changes.
  • Sensitivity to disruption by production difficulties or absenteeism.
  • The dependence of productivity on maintaining a strict rhythm of work.
2. Section or process system:
This system is used by factories with frequent style changes and small numbers of items per style. The sewing room has a number of sections, each of which specializes in the assembly of a major garment component. Then it is passed on to the next section. The spatial arrangement of the sections is such that the output end of the one section is close to the input end of the section which requires that component.

  • Semi skilled, skilled, trainee labors can be work here.
  • The advantages of this system include a small influence of personnel changes and easy style changes.
  • labor cost is low from the individual system.
  • Productivity is higher from the individual system.
  • It include large space requirement.
  • To continue this simple operation, high skilled operators are required.
  • Imprecise production time planning and longer throughout time.
  • They need more WIP, which increases the inventory cost.
  • More possibility to mix up of lost, shade variation, sizes, etc. so, apparel quality and production will be hampered. 
3. Progressive bundle system or batch system:
The progressive bundle system of garment assembly embraces some of the features and advantages of both the straight-line and the section systems. machine and operatives are organized into sections, according to basic functions, which produce sub-components e.g. small parts, sleeves, pockets, joining. Within each section the work is balanced according to the time required for each sub-function. The combination of small bundles and a line system provides the best solution to the problems of frequent style changes, small lot sizes, and short delivery deadlines.
Bundle assembly system
Fig: Bundle assembly system
  • In this system all types of labors are involved like, unskilled, skilled, and semi skilled labours.
  • Very cheap labor cost.
  • Every component is checked during operation. So, product quality is good.
  • Bundles are moved from one operation to next operation so; lot mix-up, shade variation, size variation, etc are not happened.
  • Increase the productivity.
  • Quality control and production control system easily implemented here. Use Time study, method study techniques, operator training, material handling equipments etc.
  • Line balancing is difficult.
  • Maintenance of machine and its equipment is properly needed.
  • Actual production planning is required. If the planning is wrong then increase labour turnover, poor quality, less production.
  • For this system different types of styles & less quantity are not suitable.
  • To balance the line, for each batch shuttle and utility operators are needed.
  • Proper layout should be needed for smooth flow of material.