Thursday, March 23, 2017

Fabric Inspection Process in Apparel Industry

Fabric is the main elements of garment making. Before buying the apparel, manufacturer must be checking the quality of fabric. If is not done, then they will fall in grate lose of time and money. Some apparel factories do their fabric inspection process, after receiving the fabric. But it will be more effective, if this is done in the seller factory.

Inspection of the fabric at the earliest possible stage serves not only for quality control but also to ensure customer satisfaction and cost savings.
 
Fabric inspection
Fig: Fabric inspection
Inspection and testing are carried out in order to ensure consistent product quality. The range of tests, the methods, and the instruments are used for fabric inspection depending on the individual company and the application.

Fabric inspection system:

To inspect the fabric there are number of systems available. They are
  1. 4 (four) point system
  2. 10 (ten) point system
Fabric inspection process:
Fabric inspection process is done by the 3 stages of garments manufacturing. These are mentioned in below:
  1. Inspection of incoming fabric
  2. Quality data for garment manufacture
  3. End-use performance
1. Inspection of incoming fabric:
Normally fabric inspection is done by machine. Inspection of incoming fabric is to check for conformance to the specification, so that a claim for compensation from the supplier can be made if deficiencies are found.

Checks may be made on the fabric type, design, piece lengths and widths, repeat, weight per unit area, thread density, permeability and frequency of faults.

Fabric faults may be results from a variety of circumstances at any stage from raw fiber through to the final finished fabric. Examples are variation in yarn count, neps, knots, thick places, floating threads, broken threads, faulty weave, stripes, color variation, stains, holes, tears, missed picks.

2. Fabric quality data for garment manufacture:
Collection of technical quality data allows the various production departments to be informed about potential disruptions to production which can then be planned for.

Raw material (fiber analysis):
Test methods may include handle, fiber identification, burning, tearing, solubility, wetting, absorption, microscopy etc.

Face side of the fabric:

The face is generally smoother, cleaner and more regular. Printed patterns are bolder, any pile is properly laid.+

Cutting direction:
Most garment parts are aligned in the length direction for cutting. In woven fabrics, the length direction is easily identified by the selvedges. The warp will usually be smoother and more highly twisted, often with a higher thread density. Raised piles and directional designs are usually laid in the length direction.

Seam properties and seam strength:
The various types of seam puckering (transport, structural, and tension pucker) can be evaluated at an early stage. The integrity of the seam during wear and aftercare can also be tested.

Pressing and fusing behavior, bond strength:
Different materials react differently to heat, pressure and moisture. They may shrink, become shiny, melt, or burn. The bonding between face fabric and interlining must not be weakened by aftercare treatments.

3. End-use performance of fabric:
For apparel fabrics the quality is largely determined by their performance in garments; comfort, drape, protection etc. Therefore, in addition to the technical features, tests may be carried out to indicate the performance in wearing, in use and in aftercare regimes.

Water permeability: A measurement of the pressure required to force water through the fabric.

Vapour permeability: The amount of water vapour transmitted through the fabric in a given time.

Air permeability: The rate of flow of air through the fabric at a given pressure.

Durability (slipping resistance): Measurement of tensile and tearing strengths and resistance to abrasion. Resistance to slippage of warp and weft yarns in the fabric or in aseam.

Form stability: Resistance to changes in shape (elasticity); bagging, stretching, wrinkling, wrinkle recovery.

Pilling resistance: Measure the number of pills that form during a defined period of surface rubbing.

Color fastness:
Fastness of dyes and prints to rubbing, washing, cross staining, light, weather, sea water, ironing, dry cleaning solvents.

Dimensional stability: Dimensional changes (shrinkage or stretching) during aftercare laundering and cleaning procedures.


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  2. Inline Quality Inspection Process in Apparel Industry
  3. Guidelines to Table Quality Inspection in Garment Industry