Application of Computer in Textile Raw Material Characterization

Computer is one of the most important tools for contributing to the significant advancement of textile industry. Computer technology is widely used in different branch of textile engineering. Now computer technology is applied in different modern textile instruments to characterize of textile raw material. In this article I have tried to describe application of computer in textile raw material.
 
application of computer in textile raw material
Fig: Application of computer in textile raw material
Computer Application in Textile Raw Material:

Modern textile instruments for raw materials characterization:
The following advanced testing instruments are run by computer and also displayed its result on monitor as per requirement.

  1. X-Ray Diffraction System (Amorphous and Crystal part of Polymer)
  2. Wet ability by contact angle (Absorption System)
  3. UV-Spectroscope (Dyes and Chemical Test)
  4. IR or FIR – Spectroscope (Dyes and Chemical Test)
  5. GPC (Gel-Permeation-Chromatography for Mass-Molecular distribution)
  6. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter for thermal properties of Material)
  7. TGA (Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis for thermal properties of material)
  8. OASYS (SEM, AFM for surface characterization of a Mat.)
Thermal behavior of a polymer:

a. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC):
DSC is the measurement of heat flow during transitions (Tg, Tc, Tm, Td) period of polymeric substance. This is the data acquisition system directly to computer via sensors.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
Fig: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
b. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA):
Here weight loss are recorded at different temperature (at constant heating rate: Initial temp, final temp, heating rate 0C/min from thermo sensor) due to decomposition of polymer, which is transferred to computer by data acquisition system and curve shown in plotting Weight vs Time and Weight vs Temp.
 
TGA curve, Temp vs Weight loss
Fig: TGA curve, Temp vs Weight loss
Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)
Fig: Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)
Thermal Expansion Coefficient or the dimensional changes of polymer are recorded by Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA) or by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) system and the heat of transitions also could be found by this instrument.

Morphological analysis of textile materials:
The morphology and the surface texture of textile materials can be identified by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM).

The AFM uses a piezoelectric tube for the x-y-z scanner, which sends image to computer as nano-scale and displayed it on monitor. In modern nanotechnology AFM is used to identify the surface of polymer.

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
Fig: Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) is also another modern instrument for identifying the surface tropography of fiber. Without the help of computer this instrument is not able to supply any image of textile materials.
Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM)
Fig: Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM)
The amorph and crystal part of polymer can be detected by X-Ray-Diffraction method. The intensity of diffracted ray is measured by this instrument, which is transferred as amorph and crystal part of polymer.
Fig: Schematic diagram of X-Ray diffraction
Fig: X-Ray diffraction principle
Bragg's Law,  nλ = 2dsinθ

Spectroscopy (UV, IR, FTIR):
A spectrophotometer or spectroscope is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in analysis and identity of materials. The photon energy (E, light energy) is directly proportional to frequency (v) of electromagnetic wave and reciprocal relationship to wavelength (λ).

                 C
E = hf = h …...
                 λ

The majority of spectrophotomers are used in spectral regions near the visible spectrum (390 to 750).

UV-Spectroscopy:
The radiation of UV and visible light is measured in this instrument. If all the light passes through a solution without any absorption, then absorbance is zero, and percent transmittance is 100%. If all the light is absorbed, then percent transmittance is zero, and absorption is infinite.


Infrared spectroscopy:
Infrared spectroscopy (IR/FTIR spectroscopy) deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The characteristics of this light with a longer wavelength and lower frequency than visible light, which is mostly used on absorption spectroscopy (like above). It can be used to identify and study materials of gaseous, liquid and solid states.
Schematic diagram of Infrared spectroscopy
Fig: Schematic diagram of Infrared spectroscopy
Software for classify and characterization of textile raw materials:
All kinds of textile raw materials are classified by developing software with database system.


References:
  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_photoelectron_spectroscopy
  2. https://pt.slideshare.net/DrMina2013/thermal-analysis-techniques
  3. http://pslc.ws/macrog/dsc.htm
  4. http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~carrolld/SpecProjectPages/FTIR.html
  5. http://www.andersonmaterials.com/tga.html