50 Most Useful Terms Used in Apparel Merchandising

Garments merchandisers use various types of terms and definition in their merchandising life. So, Terminology is very important for an apparel merchandiser. Garments terminology not only use merchandisers but also frequently asked in job interview, comprehensive viva and admission tests. In this article I have given most useful and frequently used garments merchandising terms.
50 Most Useful Terms Used in Apparel Merchandising

Most Useful Garments Merchandising Terminology:

1. Airway Bill: Airway Bill is an export document. It carries agreement between exporter and air carrier which is obtained from the airline used to ship the goods. It’s a receipt of goods received given by airlines. It covers transport of cargo from airport to airport.

2. Allowance: Additional measurement which added with body measurement in case of garments making. For example, if the actual body measurement is 80cm, then it’s counted as 84cm during pattern making. Here allowance is 4cm.

3. Applique: Additional fabric added in the face side of the garments for increasing the beauty of the dress which is called applique. This is a popular way of decorating fabrics. The appliqué “look” is very popular with sports and school designs. The process can be used to add “tackle twill” letters, numbers and designs to garments.

4. AQL: AQL is related to the quality of products. In textile and apparel industry Acceptance Quality Level is shortly denoted by AQL. AQL is designed as the maximum average defective items in a lot. It is expressed in a percentage number of average defective items

5. Back to back L/C: Back to Back L/C is issued on the strength of master L/C. If the raw materials are imported from a foreign country and the produced goods by using those raw materials are again exported to that country, then the L/C opened for that business is called back to back L/C.

6. Basic Block: The pattern which is made is accordance with the area of different parts of the human body and their flexes and folds without allowance and style.

7. Bill of Lading: It is a document which provides the terms of the contract between the exporter and the logistic company to move fright between stated points at a specified charge. With the help of this document on receipt from the exporter that the importer takes possession of the goods from the carrying vessel at the port of destination.

8. Buying Office: It is an independent or store owned office which is located at a market center and buys for one chain or for many stores. Buying office is also known as buying house. Buying house is the working as a bridge between buyer and supplier.

9. C&F: C&F means “Cost and Freight”. It is a pricing system. If the actual cost of goods and transportation costs are mentioned in the bill, then the system is called C & F price system.

10. CIF: CIF means “Cost, Insurance and Freight”. It is also a pricing system. If the actual price of goods, transportation cost and insurance cost are mentioned in the invoice, then this system is termed as CIF price system.

11. CIFC Order: At this type of order, the seller includes the cost of insurance, freight and commission for local buying house. 

12. CM: The full meaning of CM is Cost of Making. CM is related to the commercial parts of garments merchandising. That cost may include with trimmings, Cutting, making, trimmings cost, cost of making time etc.

13. CMP Order: In such type of order the buyer fixes the rate of CMT with the factory. So the seller does not add the price of fabric with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory. The factory collects only CMT money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric supplier.

14. CMT: It is an abbreviation the amplification of which stands as Cut make Trim. In this case, garments manufacturer quotes the buyer a proposed price which covers making cost, trimmings and accessories cost of a garment. Here, all the other required materials sent by the buyer to the manufacturer.

15. Color Bleeding: Color bleeding occurs when clothing manufacturers rely on ineffective dying techniques or cheap dyes. Pigment dye come out from one place to another and is stuck place near by suck characteristics is called color bleeding.

16. Compliance: Compliance means conformity of certain standard. The main aim of compliance is to ensuring the all labor rights and facilities according to the Buyer code of conduct.

17. Counter sample: The manufacturers produce several numbers of samples following the approved sample which is known as counter samples. They facility the bulk production or hung on production floor. 

18. CPM: CPM stands for Cost per Minute. CPM can help to find out per hour, shift, day and week cost of garments.

19. Customer: Importer is known as customer or end buyer. Sometimes they place order directly to the foreign company or by their satellite office or by the buying house. Customer or end buyer may be whole seller or retailer.

20. Dummy: It is an exact replicated mode of human body shape which is stays erected on a stand. It is often used in checking the fitting of an apparel.

21. Exporter: Exporters are those who sell or export the product to the buyer of foreign country are called exporter. 

22. F.C.L: It is abbreviated with Full Container Load. This is the good sign of both buyer and manufacturer. Normally this part handle commercial department in a garments.

23. FOA: The seller delivers the goods to the air carrier at the air port of departure. The buyer bears the risk from that moment and payees the air transport cost. In this case, seller bears the cost of materials and making, does not include air freight.

24. FOB: FOB abbreviated with “Free On Board”, which is a pricing system. If the actual price of goods is mentioned in the invoice without any transportation cost and insurance cost, then this system is called FOB price-system or costing system.

25. Fully Fashioned Garments Industry:
The industry which is manufactured knitted garments by using yarn as main materials instead of fabric is called it. Here, the main products are Sweater, Pullover and Cardigan etc. 

26. Grading:
Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to create large or small size. The process of making a sample size pattern larger or smaller to make up a complete size range. Grading alters the overall size of a design but not its general shape and appearance.

27. Grain line: It is the line, which is marked on the patterns of a garment and the line indicates the warp yarn, as a result, when the pattern is placed in the marking paper then the Grain line follow the warp yarn of fabric. 

28. Gross Margin: Gross margin is related to calculation of manufacturing cost. Gross margin is a company's total sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold (COGS), divided by total sales revenue, expressed as a percentage.The difference in dollars between net sales and the net costs of merchandise during a given period.

29. Importers: Importers are those who buy or import the product from foreign or overseas country in large quantities are called importers.

30. Interfacing: The extra layer of cloth which is used in between the part of an apparel and facing to increase shape durability and strength of the apparel.

31. Interlining: A layer of fabric which is used between two layer of fabric to give the particular area desired shape, durability and to enhance the strength of that particular position which is called interlining. e.g. collar, cuff.

32. Invoice: It is a very important document in readymade garment business which is sent with the goods to the buyer. The invoice includes products descriptions, prices, number of cartons, number of products in every cartoon etc. Every item is prohibited without commercial invoice. 

33. L.C.L: L.C.L stands for Less Container Load. When small amount of order execution then less container load for export or import from manufacturer.

34. L/C: L/C means letter for credit. L/C is an important document on export, import business. It is also one of the most used words in garment merchandising sector. L/C is a document issued by a financial institution, or a similar party, assuring payment to a seller of goods and/or services provided certain documents have been presented to the bank.

35. Lab-dip: A lab dip is a swatch of fabric test dyed to hit a color standard. It is a process by which buyer’s supplied swatch is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the laboratory with or without help of spectrophotometer. Lab dip plays an important role in shade matching & this is an important task before bulk production.

36. Lay: Cloth is laid on in more than one layer in accordance with the length and spread as marker by the marker as preparatory to cutting cloth and cloth.

37. Line Balancing: Line balancing is a plan of balancing the production schedule as per the time and action calendar. It levels the workload across all processes in a cell or value stream to remove bottlenecks and excess capacity. Line balancing is also applied in garments sewing floor for smooth order execution.

38. Marker: Marker is a thin paper which contains all the necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a particular style of garments. It is made just before cutting and its main purpose is to minimize the wastages. Marker width is equal to fabric width and obviously it should not be greater than the width of the fabric.

39. Needle Gause: In some sewing machines more than one needle is used. The gap side long between the two middle. 

40. Pantone: Pantone is an universal shade color shade card. It gets used in all industries for DTM (dye to match). There are 6 digit numbers for each color. Pantone depends upon TP (take-pad) and TC (take-card). 

41. Partial Shipment: If the production is only half done and buyer gave permission to ship the first half goods then ship the first half goods and then remaining this shipment is known as partial shipment. It is also known as prance shipment.

42. Pattern: A pattern is the actual copy of different parts of a garment that is made by cutting board paper after sketching on it. Pattern is also use as guide of a marker paper.

43. PPM: PPM abbreviated is pre-production meeting. This meeting is held just before going to the bulk production. In this meeting buyer or his agent, merchandiser, sample manager, all remain present. They decide on how to and when to start the production. If the decision Okayed, the sample is ready to go for final production.

44. Pressing: Pressing is a finishing process done by a cloth to heat and pressure with or without steam to remove creases and to impart a flat appearance to the cloth or garments. There are various types of pressing which are applied in garments.

45. Seam Allowance: The margin kept for stitching the garment is known as seam allowance. Seam allowances can range from 1⁄4 inch (6.4 mm) wide to as much as several inches. 

46. SMV: SMV stands for the Standard Minute Value. It takes a worker to complete a specific operation or produce a specific garment. SMV is important topic in garments sewing floor. Standard Minute Value is related with garments time study.

47. Subcontract Order: It is indirect order, the order is received by another factory and when it is not possible for that factory to complete the production within the period of time, in that case they share the order with other factory by giving subcontract. The subcontract factory only gets the CM charge by local money from the order taker. 

48. TNA:
TNA is a proper collaboration of Time and Action. In a Textile industry, to execute an export order, need to regular evaluation of production activates with the help of times. This regular evaluation is called Critical Path Method or Time and action plan. It is also known as issuing plan or production schedule or time and action plan.

49. Trimmings: Whatever except for the base cloth are used in an apparel are called trimmings such as button, lining, interlining and thread etc. 

50. Vendor: Vendor is very common word in Readymade Garments. In a normal word we know that vendor is a seller, resource, manufacturer or supplier.