Different Types of Fabric Cutting Machines Used in Apparel Manufacturing

Fabric Cutting:
Cutting department plays very important role in any apparel industry. To make a complete garment, cutting is necessary. Without cutting process to make a cloth is out of dream. Cutting is the process which cut out the pattern pieces from specified fabric for making apparel with the help of marker. Normally the marker is applied (drawn, traced, sprayed, clipped, pinned) on to the top ply of a lay. Consistent fabric cutting is responsible for perfect garments making.

Different Types of Fabric Cutting Machine:

Various types of cutting machine are used in apparel production. From many years hand operated scissor is used for cutting fabric. But after industrialization hand scissors are not appropriate for bulk layer cutting. Then started semi automatic fabric cutting machine. For increasing productivity in cutting room computerized fully automatic cutting machine have to use. 
 
According to the working process, the cutting machine may be classified in three categories. Such as-
  1. Manual cutting machine
  2. Semi- Automatic cutting machine
  3. Fully Automatic / Computerized cutting machine
1) Manual Cutting Machine:
  • Hand Operated Scissor
2) Semi-Automatic Cutting Machine:
  • Straight knife of Cutting Machine.
  • Round Knife Cutting Machine.
  • Band Knife Cutting Machine.
  • Die Cutting Machine.
  • Notcher Machine.
  • Drill Machine.
3) Fully Automatic / Computerized Cutting Machine:
  • Computer Controlled Knife Cutting Machine.
  • Laser Cutting Machine.
  • Water Jet Cutting Machine.
  • Rib Cutting Machine
  • Air jet Cutting Machine.
  • Ultrasonic Cutting Machine.
  • Plasma Torch Cutting Machine
Manual Cutting Machine:
We can understand scissor as a manual cutting machine. Scissor only used when cutting only single or double plies. Almost every type of cloth is cut by scissor. But it takes huge time for fabric cutting. So it is not used in bulk production.

2) Semi-Automatic Cutting Machine:

Straight Knife of Cutting Machine: 
Straight knife cutting machine is the most popular and versatile cutting machine. It is widely used in clothing industry. Because it’s production speed is very high. Higher lay of height can be cut very easily. Besides, knife is comparatively cheap and can be transferred from one place to another easily.
Straight knife cutting machine
Fig: Straight knife cutting machine
Round Knife Cutting Machine:
Round knife cutting machine is called because it’s cutter is round in shape. It is also popular cutting machine. This machine is small in size, flexible & used for small production. Round knife is widely used for cutting the big parts of the garments pattern.
Round knife cutting machine
Fig: Round knife cutting machine
Band Knife Cutting Machine:
Band knife cutting machine is look like a wood cutter machine. This cutting machine works automatically according to the height of the relevant material. Band knife cutting machines have been recognized around the world for many years for its high quality cutting.
Band knife cutting machine
Fig: Band knife cutting machine
Die Cutting Machine:
Die cutting machine involves pressing a rigid blade through the lay of fabric. It is useful where small motifs with particular shape and pattern are needed for cutting. Die cutting is most useful to cut sharp and small parts. Mainly two types of die cuttings are available in market namely, Clickers and Presses.
Die cutting machine
Fig: Die cutting machine
Notcher Cutting Machine:
It is a special type of cutting machine & use in special case. Useful to cut small notch to the fabric. It is most useful to make consistency in notching. This cannot be used in thermoplastic fibers or certain unlined garments.
Notcher Cutting Machine
Fig: Notcher Cutting Machine
Drill Cutting Machine:
Sometimes it is needed to mark on the end of components of dresses especially for the position of pockets, darts and similar features, a hole is often drill through all the plies of fabric in the lay. This machine is also used for marking on the middle of the components of dresses. It can make the hole permanently for a long.
Drill Cutting Machine
Fig: Drill Cutting Machine
3) Fully Automatic / Computerized Cutting Machine:

Computer Controlled Knife Cutting Machine:
This cutting machine provides the most accurate possible cutting at high speed. It is suitable for large scale production. Marker is not necessary to put over the fabric lays during cutting. This technology has the advantage of being highly accurate and fast, but does cost considerably more than other cutting techniques.
Computer Controlled Knife Cutting Machine
Fig: Computer Controlled Knife Cutting Machine
Laser Cutting Machine:
In laser cutting machine, the fabric is cut by a ray of light in a very fine spot by using a laser. Laser cutting processing depends on its precise processing, faster, simple operation, high degree of automation has been widely used in the leather and apparel industry. The cutting head is controlled by a computer.
laser cutting machine
Fig: Laser cutting machine
Water Jet Cutting Machine:
Water jet cutting machine is an industrial tool capable of cutting fabric lay by using a very high-pressure jet of water. A very fine water-jet is passed through a nozzle at a very high speed to cut the fabric lay. The pressure of water is 60,000 pounds per square inch. The high pressure jet acts as a solid tool when it encounters the material to be cut, tearing the fibers on impact.
Water jet cutting machine
Fig: Water jet cutting machine
Rib Cutting Machine:
These are specialized machines used to cut rib or rolls of strips from knitted tubular fabrics. Knit garment industry uses this machine widely.
Rib Cutting Machine
Fig: Rib Cutting Machine
Plasma Torch Cutting Machine:
Plazma cutting was originally developed to satisfy our demand for high quality cutting. It is used for cutting stainless steel and aluminum. But it can also be used to cut textile material. In this system, fabrics are cut by a thin through the nozzle which is made by Argon gas.
Plasma Torch Cutting Machine
Fig: Plasma Torch Cutting Machine