Applications of Adaptive Particles in Textiles and Fibers

Adaptive Particles in Textiles:
There are many smart and functional materials, adaptive polymers are one of them. We can define adaptive polymer, it is a type of polymer which is designed to respond to different external stimuli in a controlled and predictable manner. And adaptive textiles are a type of smart textile which displays a smart response to a narrow range of external stimuli. Adaptive polymeric particles have various potential applications in different branches. Like as biomedical, electronic, environmental, magnetic, mechanical, thermal etc. It also has great application in textiles and fiber. Because It has many advantages, such as stability, ease of synthesis, good control over particle size and easy fictionalization providing stimulus-responsive behavior. It becomes clear that this type of material holds great promise for nanotechnology. In this article I will try to give potential applications of adaptive particles in textiles and fibers.
adaptive polymers
Adaptive polymers
Applications of Adaptive Particles in Textiles and Fibers:
Textiles and fibers are very important in our day to day life. The most common and important uses of textiles are for our clothing and containers, such as bags and baskets. Textiles also can be used in carpeting, window shades, table padding and so on. For industrial applications, textiles can be applied as medical textiles, protective textiles, agrotextiles, automobiles and in firefighting. For multiple applications, technologists have developed many techniques to modify textiles and fibers. Textiles can be treated by many methods to obtain the desired characteristics. The new techniques have offered many important platforms for the functional modification of textiles to serve special and versatile requirements. These methods include nanoparticle surface modification, sol-gel treatment, chemical vapor disposition, micro-encapsulation and many others. Polymeric particles which are adaptive and functional in many ways will be popular, especially for multiple purposes.

1. Nanoparticle modification on textiles:
For modifying nanoparticles, existing textile materials have to modified by using electrostatic self-assembly and atomic layer deposition techniques to create multifunctional and customisable textile surfaces by depositing polyelectrolyte onto the conventional textile substrates with a myriad of nanoparticles and nonspherical colloids. Magnetic and electric fields have to use to achieve precise position control of functional nanoparticles inside and outside polymeric fibers, hence creating novel nanocomposite materials. These nanofibers may be hailed as anti-counterfeiting, antibacterial, anti-odour and self-decontaminating applications. They also include tunable coloration and control of near infrared signatures for active camouflage applications.

2. Self cleaning modification on textiles:
Another important application of a modified nanoparticle; TiO2, is the self cleaning modification of cotton textiles or wool-polyamide and polyester textiles. The self cleaning cotton could be useful in the event of wine, make-up and other stains. The self cleaning action makes it possible to space at larger intervals, the cleaning of cotton tissues that are used in aircrafts, and clothing and health industries, since self cleaning is only partially effective in completely abating dirt.

3. Shape memory finishing on textiles:
Biodegradable materials have been widely applied in textiles. Cotton surface has to modify with chitosan particles to obtain multi-functional protective and self cleaning textile materials through nano-finishing. As a results, cotton fabric with excellent antibacterial durability was obtained when treated with chitosan containing core-shell particles without any chemical binders. These particles with antibacterial chitosan shells covalently grafted onto polymer cores were prepared via a surfactant-free emulsion copolymersation in aqueous chitosan. Hence, the modified cotton improves resistance to creasing and shrinking and/or has improved handle.

4. Micro-encapsulation on textiles:
Microencapsulation of particles can provide textiles with new properties and added value. Rodrigues introduced Scentfashion, which is a technology that uses microencapsulated perfumes in textile applications. In their research, perfume formulation was performed by taking into account the target market and type of textile substrate for man suits. Interfacial polymersation was used to produce polyurethane/urea (PUU) microcapsules. During dry cleaning of lab-scale impregnated fabrics, the loss of limonene was 38% in the first cycle and up to 87% after five dry cleaning cycles. The standard fabric that is used to rub the fabric containing microcapsules can remove microcapsules from its surface and lower the active effect. Some odor intensity remained after some washing cycles and the rubbing test, which means that these methods do not destroy all of the microcapsules.

5. Phase change material particles:
The technology for incorporating phase change material (PCM) microcapsules into textile structures to improve their thermal performance. Microcapsules with walls that are less than 2 μm in thickness and 20-40 μm in diameter are useful in fiber applications. The microcapsules can be produced by depositing a thin polymer coating on small solid particles or on dispersions of solids in liquids. In their application in textiles, the paraffins are either in a solid or liquid state. In order to prevent dissolution of the paraffin while in the liquid state, the paraffin is enclosed into a small plastic sphere with a diameter of only a few micrometres.

Microencapsulation: paraffinic PCM core material with a hard polymeric shell.
  1. Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications –by Jinlian Hu
  3. Functional polymers for the 21stcentury: From self-healing materials to new batteries -by Ulrich S. Schubert
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